Hammertoes describe a contracted or curled up position of single or multiple toe joints, frequently on both feet. The cause of the contracted position of the toes is usually from abnormalities in the structure and function of muscles and tendons. Tight or poor fitting shoes may contribute to formation of these deformities.
Conservative treatment is limited to wider and good fitting shoes, splinting and padding. Associated corns may be debrided or padding for symptomatic relief. Surgical intervention is reserved for cases in which conservative treatment does not adequately control symptoms. Surgery may include tendon transfers or release, fusion of the knuckle into a straightened position or removal of prominent bone to allow the toe to assume a more straightened position.
There are several common sources of heel pain, including stress fractures of heel bone, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis.