Corns and calluses are a thickening of the outer layer of the skin that form in areas of increased friction or pressure. Corns will usually form on toes as a result of increased pressure because of improper fitting shoes or deformities of the toes. Calluses will usually form on the ball of the foot and commonly result from excessive activity or weight-bearing on hard surfaces or from underlying bony abnormalities.
Conservative treatment may include periodic debridement of the thickened skin, padding, changing shoes or lifestyle modifications. Surgery may be indicated if conservative measures fail. Surgical procedures are geared toward removing the cause of the lesion, which may include removing spurs, straightening hammertoes and/or bunion correction.